Fragility analysis of a historical reinforced concrete arch railway bridge

Kadir Ozakgul, Mehmet Fatih Yılmaz, Barlas Ozden Caglayan


In this study, fragility analysis of a reinforced concrete arch railway bridge with a total length of 285 m having seven spans of 35 m, a height of 34 m and 15 ‰ slope were performed. The bridge constructed in 1928 still continues to give service. Because the bridge is located in a seismically active region in the southern part of Turkey and on a road, which is critical and important for national railway transportation, it was aimed to perform a probabilistic seismic assessment of the bridge. For this purpose, firstly, 3D finite-element  model of the bridge was generated with the software SAP2000 according to the original constructional drawings. Then, the initial FE model was verified using its natural frequencies and mode shapes obtained from in-situ field acceleration measurements. Nonlinear time-history analyses were performed to obtain the seismic demands for 60 different real earthquake records. Probabilistic seismic demand model (PSDM) was derived to determine relations between engineering demand parameter (EDP) and intensity measure (IM). Lateral displacements of the mid-spans were considered as a damage state for three different service velocities. Finally, fragility curves of the bridge were derived.

Tam Metin:



Shinozuka, M., Feng, M.Q., Lee, J. and Naganuma, T..,Statistical analysis of fragility curves,. ASCE Journal of Engineering Mechanics, 126(12), 1224–31, (2000).

Shinozuka, M., Feng, M.Q., Kim, H.K. and Kim, S.H., Nonlinear static procedure for fragility curve development, ASCE Journal of Engineering Mechanics, 126(12), 1287-95, (2000).

Pitilakis, K., Crowley, H., Kaynia, A.M., SYNER-G: Typology Definition and Fragility Functions for Physical Elements at Seismic Risk, Geotechnical, Geological and Earthquake Engineering. Springer: Dordrecht, (2014).

Mackie, K. and Stojadinovic, B., Probabilistic seismic demand model for California highway bridges, ASCE Journal of Bridge Engineering, 6(6), 468-81, (2001).

Choi, E., DesRoches, R., Nielson, B., Seismic fragility of typical bridges in moderate seismic zones, Engineering Structures 26(2), 187-99, (2004).

Nielson, B.G., Analytical fragility curves for highway bridges in moderate seismic zones, PhD Thesis. School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA. (2005).

Banerjee, S. and Shinozuka, M., Nonlinear static procedure for seismic vulnerability assessment of bridges, Computer-Aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering, 22(4), 293-305, (2007).

Özgür, A., Fragility based seismic vulnerability assessment of ordinary highway bridges in Turkey, PhD Thesis. Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, (2009).

Kumar, R. and Gardoni, P., Effect of seismic degradation on the fragility of reinforced concrete bridges, Engineering Structures, 79, 267-75, (2014).

Yılmaz, M.F. and Çağlayan, B.O., Seismic assessment of a multi-span steel railway bridge in Turkey based on nonlinear time history, Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 18(1), 231-240, (2018).

Pela, L., Aprile, A. and Benedetti, A., Comparison of seismic assessment procedures for masonry arch bridges, Construction and Building Materials, 38, 381-94, (2013).

De Santis, S. and De Felice, G., A fiber beam-based approach for the evaluation of the seismic capacity of masonry arches, Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, 43, 1661-81, (2014).

Pellegrino, C., Zanini, M.A., Zampieri, P. and Modena, C., Contribution of in situ and laboratory investigations for assessing seismic vulnerability of existing bridges, Structure and Infrastructure Engineering, 11(9), 1147-62, (2015).

Marefat, M.S., Yazdani, M. and Jafari, M., Seismic assessment of small to medium spans plain concrete arch bridges, European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering, 23(7), 894-915, (2017).

SAP2000. Structural analysis program. Computers and Structures Inc., Berkeley, California. (2015).

EN1990-prANNEX A2, Application for bridges. Eurocode: Basis of Structural Design, European Committee for Standardization, Brussels, (2001).

Emre, Ö., Duman, T.Y., Özalp, S., Elmacı, H., Olgun, Ş., and Şaroğlu, F., Active fault map of Turkey with an explanatory text 1:1,250,000 scale, Special Publication Series 30. General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration, Ankara, Turkey, (2013).

Emre, Ö., Duman, T.Y., Özalp, S., Şaroğlu, F., Olgun, Ş., Elmacı, H., and Çan, T., Active fault database of Turkey, Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, 16(8), 3229-3275, (2018).

Mackie, K.R. and Stojadinovic, B., Comparison of incremental dynamic, cloud and stripe methods for computing probabilistic seismic demand models, ASCE Structures Congress 2005, (2005).

Kwon, O.S., Elnashai, A., The effect of material and ground motion uncertainty on the seismic vulnerability curves of RC structure, Engineering Structures, 28, 289-303, (2006).

Byers, W.G., Railroad lifeline damage in earthquakes, 13th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Vancouver, B.C., Canada, (2004).

Kawashima, K., Damage of bridges due to the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake, Journal of Japan Association for Earthquake Engineering, 12(4), 319-338, (2012).

Cornell, C.A., Jalayer, F., Hamburger, R.O., and Foutch, D.A., Probabilistic Basis for 2000 SAC Federal Emergency Management Agenccy Steel Moment Frame Guidelines, J. Struct. Eng., 128(4), 526–533, (2002).


  • Şu halde refbacks yoktur.

Telif Hakkı (c) 2020 Kadir Ozakgul, Mehmet Fatih Yılmaz, Barlas Ozden Caglayan

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.