The genotoxic and biochemical effects of wastewater samples from a fat plant in Erzurum

Hasan Türkmez, Turgay Şişman, Ümit İncekara, Fatime Geyikoğlu, Abdulgani Tatar, B. Saait Keleş


Toxicological effects of effluent exposure may be acute or chronic, and can occur at all levels of biological organization, from the molecular to the ecosystem level. The most common strategy to investigate potential adverse effects and toxicological modes of action following effluent exposure is the use of biological tests. The frequencies of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) enzyme activities were assessed on human blood cultures exposed to wastewater samples (WWS). The water samples were taken from a local fat plant in Ilıca region (Erzurum). Metal ions (Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Pb, Cd) were measured by an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). According to our results, SCE rates increased significantly (P<0.0.5) in dose-responded manner after treatments with WWS. And there was a significant positive correlation between SCE frequencies and WWS concentrations (r = 0.98). On the other hand, SOD, CAT and GSH-Px enzyme activities decreased in erythrocytes. These results reveal that high level of heavy metal content (especially lead and cadmium) of WWS caused genotoxic damage by oxidative stress. Thus, this could lead to adverse health effects for exposed human and animal populations.

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