Growth and Reproductive Characteristics of the Thinlipped Grey Mullet, Liza ramada (Risso, 1826) Inhabiting in Gökova Bay (Muğla), the Southern Aegean Sea, Turkey

Cahit Kasımoğlu, Fevzi Yılmaz, Hatice Torcu Koç


In this study, the determination of growth and reproductive characteristics of the thinlipped grey mullet (Liza ramada) living in the Gökova Bay (Mugla)  were carried out.  For this purpose, 120 individuals were obtained by monthly sampling during the period between June 2007 and May 2008.  The total length ranged from 154 mm to 480 mm and weight varied between 35.0 and 505.5 g. Age groups varied between I and VI for this species in Gökova Bay, with the second and third year-classes dominating. Sex ratio was 1.26:1 (M:F), corresponding to 55.84% male and 44.16% female of the population (P>0.05, χ2 test).  The length-weight relation was found as W= 0.0005L2,25 for all individuals.  The von Bertalanffy growth equation was calculated as: Lt= 489.19[1−e−0,21(t+1,01)] by using the data of 120 L. ramada specimens.  Significant statistical differences in condition factors between age classes and sexes were not found (P>0.05, t-test). Monthly examination of condition factor showed that similar condition cycle is evident in both sexes, peaking in August (1.135 for males and 1.136 for females).  Spawning period of this species in Gökova Bay occured between October and December, showing a peak in November.

Tam Metin:



Papa, R., Marzano, F.N., Rossi, V., Gandolfi, G., Genetic diversity and adaptability of two species of Mugilidae (Teleostei: Perciformes) of the Po river delta coastal lagoons , Oceanologica Acta, 26, 121-128, (2003).

Keith, P., Le Bail, P.Y. and Planquette, P., Atlas des poissons d'eau douce de Guyane (tome 2, fascicule I). Publications Scientifiques du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 286 p, Paris, (2000).

Karataş, M., Investigation of reproduction characteristics and meat yields of chub (Leuciscus cephalus L.) and Italian barbel (Barbus plebejus L.) living in Almus Dam Lake, A. Ü. Institue of Science and Technology, PhD thesis (unpublished), 127 pp, Erzurum, (1995).

Ergene, S., Reproduction characteristic of Thinlip Grey mullet, Liza ramada (Risso, 1826) inhabiting Akgöl-Paradeniz lagoons (Göksǘ Delta). Turkish Journal of Zoology, 24, 159–164, (2000).

Hoşsucu, B., Some growth parameters of mullet species (Mugil spp.) living in Güllük Lagoon (Aegean Sea). E. U. Journal of Fisheries, Aquatic Sciences, 18, 421–435, (2001).

Minos GC (1996) Biology and dynamics of Liza ramada (Pisces: Mugilidae) of the Mesolongi-Etoliko lagoon. Doctorate dissertation, University of Patra, Greece

Sinovčić,G., Zorica, B. and Franičević, M., Population dynamics of grey mullet, Liza (Liza) ramada (Risso, 1826) from the Middle Adriatic (Šibenik Bay), Proceedings, 8th Croatian Biological Congress / Besendorfer, Višnja ; Kopjar, Nevenka (ur.), Croatian Biological Society , 2003. 299-300, Zagreb (2003).

Torricelli, P., Tongiorgi, P. and Almansi, P., Migration of grey mullet fry into the Arno river: Seasonal appearance, daily activity, and feeding rhythms, Fisheries Research, 1, 219-234, (1981-1982).

Almeida, PR, Moreira F, Costa JL, Assis CA, Costa MJ., The feeding strategies of Liza ramada (Risso, 1826) in fresh and brackish water in the River Tagus, Portugal. Journal of Fish Biology, 42, 95, (1993).

Dzikowski, R., Paperna, I. and Diamant, A., Use of fish parasite species richness indices in analyzing anthropogenically impacted coastal marine ecosystems, Helgol Marine Research, 57, 220–227, (2003)

Mureno, M., Olita, A., Sabatini, A., Follesa, M.C. and Cau, A., Dystrophy effects on the Liza ramada (Risso, 1826) (Pisces, Mugilidae) population in the Cabras lagoon (Central-Western Sardinia), Chemistry and Ecology, - v2020(S1), 425 – 433, (2004).

Matić-Skoko, S., Peharda, M., Pallaora, A., Franicevic, M., Species composition, seasonal fluctuations, and residency of inshore fish assemblages in the pantan estuary of the eastern middle Adriatic, Acta Adriatica, 46, 201–212, (2005).

El-Halfawy, M., Ramadan, A.M., Mahmoud, W.F., Reproductive Biology and Histological Studies of The Grey Mullet, Liza ramada, (Risso, 1826) In Lake Timsah, Suez Canal, Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research, 33, 434-454, (2007).

Ergene, S., Growth properties of thin-lipped mullet, Liza ramada (Risso., 1826) inhabiting in Akgöl-Paradeniz Lagoon of Göksu Delta. Turkish Journal of Zoology, 23, (supplement. 2): 647–655, (1999).

Göçer, M. and Ekingen, G., Growth parameters of Liza ramada (Risso, 1826) population in Mersin Bay, E.U. Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 20, 27 – 34, ( 2003).

Cihangir, B., Benli, H.A., Cirik, Ş., Ünlüoğlu, A. and Sayın, E., Bio-ecological properties of Gökova Bay, Proceedings of Symposium on Bodrum Peninsula Enviromental Problems, Bodrum, 15-19 Şubat 1995, 647-662, (1998).

Akyol, 0., Ceyhan, T., İlkyaz, A. and M.Erdem., et al., Gökova Körfezi (Ege Denizi) Uzatma Ağları Balıkçılığı Üzerine Araştırmalar, Anadolu University, Journal of Science and Technology, 8, 139-144, (2007).

Bagliniere, J. L. and Louarn H. L., Caracteristiques scalimetriques des principales especes de poissons deau douce de France. Bulletin France Peche Piscis, 306, 1–39, (1987).

Chugunov, N.I., Age and Growth Studies in Fish. Translation from Russian. Israel Program for Scientific Translations. 132 p. Jerusalem (1963).

Lagler, K. F., Freshwater Fishery Biology. W. M. C. Brown Company. Dubuque, Iowa, 421 p., (1966).

Hotos, G.N. A study on the scales and age estimation of the grey golden mullet, Liza aurata (Risso, 1810), in the lagoon of Messolonghi (W. Greece). Journal of Applied Ichtyology, 19, 220-228, (2003).

Ricker, W. E., Computation and interpretation of biological statistics of fish populations. Bulletin. Fish Research. Board Canadian, 191, 382 pp, (1975).

Sparre, P and Venema, S.C., Introduction to tropical Fish Stock Assessment. Part 1. Manual. FAO Fishery Technical Paper, 306/1, Rev. 1, 376 p. Rome (1992).

Bolger, T and Connolly, P.L., The selection of suitable indices for the measurements and analysis of fish condition, Journal of Fish Biology, 34, 171–182, (1989).

Avsar, D., Fishery biology and population dynamics, University of Cukurova Handbook 5. Nobel Publ., Adana, 332 pp, (2005).

Nikolsky, G. V., The ecology of fishes (translated by L. Birkett). Academic Press, London, 352 p, (1963).

Bruslé, S., Contribution à la connaissance de la sexualité de Poissons Téléostéens Marins Gonochoriques (Mugilidés) et Hermaphrodites (Serranidés). Thèse Doct., Univ. Perpignan, 360 pp., (1982).

Erdogan,O., TürkmenM. and YildirimA., Studiesontheage,growthand reproduction characteristics of the Chub, Leuciscus cephalus orientalis,(Nordmann, 1840) in Karasu River, Turkey. Turk Journal of Veterinary Animal Science, 26, 983–991 (2002).

Koc¸H. T.,Z. Erdogan, Z., Tinkci, M.and Treer, T., Age, growth and reproductive characteristics of chub, Leuciscus cephalus (L., 1758) in the _Ikizcetepeler Dam Lake (Balikesir), Turkey, Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 23, 19–24,(2007).

Lorenzoni, M., Carosi, A., Pedicillo, G., Pompei, L. and Rocchini, M., Reproductive properties of the chub Squalius squalus (Bonaparte, 1837) in the Assino Creek (Umbria, Italy), Knowledge and Management of Aquatic Ecosystems, 403, 09, (2011).

Wootton, R. J., Fish ecology. Blackwell, Glasgow, 203 p, (1992).

Bilgin, S., Bircan, R., Sümer, Ç., Özdemir, S., Çelik, E.Ş., Ak, O., Satılmış, H.H., and Bayraklı, B., Population Features and Reproduction Biology of Golden Grey Mullet Lizaaurata (Risso, 1810) (Pisces: Mugilidae), in the Middle Black Sea (Sinop-Samsun Regions), Science and Engineering Journal of Fırat University, 18, 49-62, (2006 ).

Farrugio H (1975) Les Muges (Poissons, Téléostéens) de Tunisie. Répartition et pêche, contribution à leur étude systématique et biologique. Thèse Doct. Univ. USTL, 201 pp, Montpellier, (1975).

Yerli, S. V., Investigations on stocks of thin-lipped mullet, L. ramada (Risso, 1826) in Köycegiz Lagoon System, Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, 16, 103–120, (1991).

Kalay, M., Sangün, M.K., Ayas, D., Göçer, M., et al., Chemical Composition and Some Trace Element Levels of Thinlip Mullet, Liza ramada Caught from Mersin Gulf, Ekoloji, 17, 68, 11-16, (2008)

Glamuzina, B., Dulčić, J., Conides, A., Bartulović, V., Matić-Skoko, S., Papaconstantinou, C. Some biological parameters of the thin-lipped mullet, Liza ramada (Pisces, Mugilidae) in the Neretva River delta (Eastern Adriatic, Croatian coast). Vie et Millieu, 3, 131-136, (2007).

Modrusan, Z., Teskeredzic, E., and Jukic, S., Biology and ecology of Mullidae species on the eastern Adriatic coast (Sibenic Bay). Report of fifth technical consultation of the general fisheries concil fort he Mediterranean on stock assesment in the Adriatic and Ionian Seas, Barry, Italy, FAO, Fish Rapp., (394), 159-167, (1988).

Sinovčić,G., Allegria-Hernandez, V., Jug-Duyakovic, J., Jukic, S., Kacic, I., Regner, S., Tonkovic, M., Contribution to the knowledge of ecology of grey mullet, Liza (Liza) ramada (Risso, 1826) from the Middle Adriatic (Šibenik Bay), Acta Adriatica, 27, 147-162, (1986).

Arruda, L.M., Azevedo, J.N., and Neto, A.I., Age and growth of grey mullet, Liza (Liza) ramada (Risso, 1826) (Pisces: Mugilidae) in Ria de Aveiro (Portugal), Scientia Marina, 55, 497-504, (1991).

Katselis, G., Koukou, K., and Moutopoulos, D., Yield per recruit and spawning stock biomass models for the management of four Mugilidae species in Mesolonghi –Aitoliko lagoon (W. Greece), International Aquatic Research (Special Issue of AquaMedit 2010 Conference, Greece), 2, 155-162, (2010).

Bagenal, T. B. And Tesch, F. W., 1978: Age and growth. In: Methods for assessment of fish production in fresh waters. IBP Handbook No. 3. T. Bagenal (Ed.). Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, pp.101–136 (1978).

Temelli, B., Mullet species which can be cultured and natural breeding properties of the fishes in İzmir Bay, Journal of Fisheries, 4, 13-16, 93–105, (1987).

Sarı, H. M., Investigation of biology of thin-lipped mullet population (Liza ramada Risso, 1826) in Bafa Lake, MSc. Thesis, E. Ü. Institute of Science and Technology, 1–67, (1988).

Yerli, S., Investigations on economic fish populations in Köyceğiz Lagoon System, H. U. PhD. thesis, Institute of Science and Technology, 1–267, (1989).

Akyol, O., Demecology of mullet (mullidae) species of Homa Lagoon (İzmir Körfezi) kefal (Mugilidae). E.Ü. Institute of Science and Technology, PhD. Thesis, Bornova-İzmir, 1–123, (1999).

El-Zaeem, S.Y., Phenotype and genotype differentiation between flathead grey mullet [Mugil cephalus] and thinlip grey mullet [Liza ramada (Pisces: Mugilidae)], African Journal of Biotechnology, 10, 9485-9492, (2011).

Frost, W. E., The age and growth of eels (Anguilla anguilla) from The Windemere catchment area: Part 2. Journal of Animal Ecology, 14, 106–124 (1945).

Treer, T.; Habekovic, D.; Safner, R.; Kolak, A., Length-mass relationship in chub (Leuciscus cephalus) from five Croatian rivers. Agricultural Conspectus Science, 64, 137–142, (1999).

Sagi, G. and Abraham, M., Photoperiod and ovarian activity in the gray mullet L. ramada (Pisces. Mugilidae), Israel Journal of Zoology, 33, 1–9, (1985).

Slastenenko, E., Karadeniz Havzasi baliklan: (Çeviri. H. Altan) Et ve Balık Kurumu Umum Müdürlüğü Yayını. 711p, (1956).

Katavic, I., Temporal distribution of young mugilids (Mugilidae) in the coastal waters of the Central Eastern Adriatic, Acta Adriatica, 21, 137-150, (1980).

Salem, S.A.and Mohammed, S.Z., Studies on Mugil seheli and Mugil capito in Lake Timsah II. Reproduction, Bulletin of Institute Oceaography and Fishery, 8, 95–100, (1982).

Eisawy, A. M.; Hashem, M. T. and ELSedfy, H. M., Sexual maturity, spawning migration and fecundity of Mugil capito in lake Borollus. Bulletin Institute of Oceaography and Fishery, ARE, 4, 34–56, (1974).

Buhan, E., Development of Lagoon management through researches of mullet populations in Köyceğiz Lagoon System, Ministry of Rural Affairs, Fisheries Research Institute, Bodrum, serie B, 3, 1-347, (1998).

Zaki , M.L., Salem, S. B.; EL-Gharabawy, M. M.., EL-Shorbagy, I. K and EL-Boray, K.F., Seasonal histological changes in the testes of Mugil seheli in Suez Bay. Buletin of Natural Institute of Oceanography and Fish., ARE, 20, 211-223, (1994).

Anonymus, Ministry of Rural Affairs, 26675th number, 1/2 no.notifications, Ankara, (2007).


  • Şu halde refbacks yoktur.

Telif Hakkı (c) 2016 Cahit Kasımoğlu, Fevzi Yılmaz, Hatice Torcu Koç

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.